Descriptive List
of
Recorders

Smiley Icon - Recommended Model - Click for Details Recommended Model.     Click Eye Icon for a picture.     Click Speaker Icon for sound.

For a Price List, of stock by size and style, click here.

 
For Used Recorders click here.

 

SAUNDERS RECORDERS

BRISTOL ENGLAND

john@saundersrecorders.com

Please click here to see the contents list for this page.

Please see the News page for details of the changes to the business.
My stock of most products will not be replenished.
Please be sure to refresh your browser.

The business proprietor is John Everingham F.T.C.L.

This page was last updated

This page is no longer a price list.
I am turning it into a rather personal recorder archive.
As I make progress in this task, and adopt HTML5 encoding,
images of discontinued models will become available.
Images and comments remain accessible by links to separate pages.
This original system served me well by enabling this page to load in a flash.

SAUNDERS RECORDERS stocked a range of good and better quality recorders. Both wooden recorders and plastic recorders feature in this list. I tried not to adopt an elitist stance, but there was no rubbish. It can be difficult to choose between a wood recorder and a plastic recorder at the lower end of the price range and I believe that the better recorders made of plastic are preferable to many recorders made of wood.

I stocked very musical and playable recorders from around ten to more than a thousand pounds. They are listed by manufacturer. My listings have proved to be a popular resource and they will remain on line for the time being. I am editing the text to reflect the passage of time and my advancing years. The substance of my comments is unaltered.

All the recorders listed are baroque fingered models. 'German' fingering is not used in the UK. (Thank goodness!) They are all supplied in some sort of bag or case. The most expensive recorders come in better quality cases or wallets. They play at 'Concert Pitch' (A=440) except where otherwise specified. (Some makers work to A=442. The difference is not very significant but it can be helpful.)

These pages are the result of adapting the paper price list, with comments, that had always been a feature of this business. Gradually the influence of the web has taken over and the features extended. I have taken a lot of trouble to keep everything printer friendly. When the business was young there was no internet or home computer let alone a 'smart phone'. How different things are now! I did not think of myself as running an 'internet business', and I will continue to be available, in person. The service relies on my personal expertise and experience and you may visit me by appointment. Please do not overlook the music pages. My music stock has now been transferred to Recorder Music Mail who will be very happy to supply you.

In response to requests for recommended models I introduced a cute little icon Smiley Icon - Recommended Model - Click for Details against my preferred models. (Click the icon for more information.) I have only done this for recorders at the lower end of the price range (plastic and wood). They are my personal choice and you can find out more by reading my choice notes. The green 'smiley' Smiley Icon - Recommended Model - Click for Details marks models that I think are better suited the needs of folk music. A few recorders that have a green smiley, on the right, did not originally qualify for a yellow smiley because of their price.

Many of the less expensive wooden recorders are available with single holes for the lowest notes. I have chosen not to stock them and they are not mentioned in the list. All cheaper wooden descant recorders are made in two pieces only, most plastic descants are made in three. I do not regard the difference as significant. The moveable bottom joint should never be turned to facilitate 'left handed' playing. The price at which wooden descants start to be made with a separate foot joint is about £100. If you find a new instrument with a separate foot joint for significantly less you are likely to be very dissatisfied with the tone and finish.

There are hyperlinks in the list which will produce images of the recorders, Eye Icon, and mp3 sound files, Speaker Icon. If you would like to see what audio is available click here. Please explore the site fully, and do not ignore "Other Topics". There is a wealth of material on the "Information and Advice" page.

If you click on the page of data (the right hand side of your screen if there is a left hand menu) and then hit Ctrl F your browser should bring up a search box for that page.

ADLER

The production of Adler recorders has ceased.
 

ARIEL / ZAMIR

Plain instruments for the budget conscious. I no longer have any. Just for the record, I have resurrected a picture of two maple descant models here.

 

AULOS

There have been many changes to this range of plastic instruments over the years. The popular but rather strident flat bottomed 205 descant has been replaced by the 205A which will surely meet with approval from teachers and children alike. It is slightly shorter than before and just as easy to play, but much sweeter in tone. It still comes in the famous yellow bag. The keyless tenor 211A, of similar appearance to the 205A descant, replaces the old 311N. All Aulos models (except the sopranino) now come with a thumb rest. The other models listed here offer alternative characteristics for the discerning player. Where "E" appears in the model number I believe it signifies "English" (or "Baroque") fingering. Some previous instances have been removed, they were a source of confusion. A "G" signifies "German" fingering. I do not stock "German" fingered recorders at all.

The new, sweet toned, all brown 303 descant is low priced, but seems to me to be a poor thing indeed. I do not care for the tone of lowest notes of the 503B model descant. The matching sopranino, 507B-E, is good. The discontinued all black 803 descant was not at all nice.

The newer models are very similar to the previous ones, but have a concave end to the bell. I do not think that this is a significant design feature. (Except for bell stopped notes, which become nearly impossible to execute cleanly.) I have found the patent reference here...
 
https://www.freepatentsonline.com/5375498.pdf
 
It wasn't until I saw the drawings that I had any idea what they were describing. Perhaps it was lost in translation.

The 309A treble is my recommendation for adult beginners and new players who do not mind the extra cost. The reedy sounding 509 trebles had a short catalogue life.. The tone of the "B" model was smoother but it I did not care for the intonation. The latest version of the straight bass, 533EE, is a noticeable improvement.

There are also two instruments after Richard Haka, descant and treble. These have very tightly focused and slightly reedy tone, and the treble a delightful attack. Both are simulated rosewood, very convincing, nice to play and hold. The latest versions of these models seem to me to play in the same way as the previous ones.

The baroque flutes are very playable.

This is a link to the 2009 catalogue in pdf format from the maker of Aulos recorders. (Historical note...You may not be able to view it in your browser unless you download Japanese character support. You can avoid this, if you wish, by right clicking the link and saving the file to your computer. It should open in Acrobat Reader without any problem or extra download.)

I have removed comments about the 'white spot' on the 500 series of Aulos recorders as the passage of time has made it irrelevant. The first 500 series all had it, and it was a convenient way of identifying these special models. I have produced a page detailing some old models here, with some comments on the various models. It now includes an image of the mysterious 'white spot'.

The UK distributor of Aulos products changed at the end of June 2012. I have added the fanciful model names now associated with Aulos recorders.

Aulos Recorders

Aulos Smiley Icon - Recommended Model - Click for Details 501S Eye Icon - Link to Picture garklein 'Symphony' Speaker Icon - Link to Sound.
I will not list this as a 'Kleine Sopranino', the Aulos description. The fingering for this model has some surprises and I have prepared a pdf version of the chart provided by Aulos here.
plastic
spacer
spacer
Aulos 207 sopranino nla (all gone) plastic
Aulos Smiley Icon - Recommended Model - Click for Details 507B-E Eye Icon - Link to Picture sopranino 'Symphony' plastic
spacer
spacer
Aulos 303A Eye Icon - Link to Picture descant 'Elite' (blue bag) all brown. plastic
Aulos 103N Eye Icon - Link to Picture descant 'Alouette'
One piece, single holes, fixed thumb rest, brown and ivory.
This unusual model has a very good sound and
deserves to be popular.
plastic
Aulos Smiley Icon - Recommended Model - Click for Details 205A Eye Icon - Link to Picture descant 'Robin' (yellow bag) Speaker Icon - Link to Sound. plastic
Aulos 503B Eye Icon - Link to Picture descant 'Symphony' plastic
Aulos 703BW Eye Icon - Link to Picture descant 'Haka' model   rosewood finish. Speaker Icon - Link to Sound. plastic
Aulos 204AF Special descant, for unusual hands, see note. plastic
spacer
spacer
Aulos Smiley Icon - Recommended Model - Click for Details 209B Eye Icon - Link to Picture treble 'Robin' plastic
Aulos Smiley Icon - Recommended Model - Click for Details 309A Eye Icon - Link to Picture treble 'Bel Canto' plastic
Aulos 509B Eye Icon - Link to Picture treble 'Symphony' plastic
Aulos 709BW Eye Icon - Link to Picture treble 'Haka' model rosewood finish. Speaker Icon - Link to Sound. plastic
Aulos 309AF Special treble, for unusual hands, see note. plastic
spacer
spacer
Aulos 211A Eye Icon - Link to Picture tenor 'Robin' (keyless). plastic
Aulos 511BE Eye Icon - Link to Picture tenor 'Symphony' with keys for C & C#. plastic
spacer
spacer
Aulos 521E Eye Icon - Link to Picture knick bass 'Symphony' F/F#. plastic
Aulos 533B Eye Icon - Link to Picture bass 'Symphony' F/F#,   (Top entry mouth pipe.) plastic
Aulos 533EE Eye Icon - Link to Picture bass F/F#,   (Fat mouth pipe.) Discontinued. plastic
Aulos 1683B Eye Icon - Link to Picture direct blow cap for bass. Discontinued. plastic
Aulos 1678L Eye Icon - Link to Picture beak for pipe blown bass. See also here.

Pipes continue to be a problem and I managed to modify an old cap so that it takes the current pipe.
Click here if you would like to see a pdf showing what is involved.
plastic
spacer
spacer
Aulos DTR clip-on thumb rest, for descant plastic
Aulos ATR clip-on thumb rest, for treble plastic
Aulos TTR clip-on thumb rest, for tenor plastic
  These thumb rests will fit most wooden recorders.

Care must be taken when fitting them.

The Aulos mark must be towards the head of the recorder and the thumb rest must be slid up the body from the lower end.

It is best to spread the clip and prevent the ends from scratching the surface (varnish) of the recorder when doing this. (I hold the body of the recorder between my thighs use both hands, trapping my thumb thumbnails between the clip and the recorder.)

Kung wooden recorders may give trouble as they tend to have thicker bodies than others. It may be best to use a tenor rest for a treble and make up the difference with felt or sheet cork.

 
  Some spare parts are available from Aulos dealers (not 'silver' tenor keys).  

Aulos Baroque Flutes

Eye Icon - Link to Picture
Aulos AF1 'Grenser' A440, gloss finish, black with ivory rings and a metal key.
Reintroduced, now with black emboucher hole surround.
(As AF2 in above image.)
plastic
Aulos AF2 'Grenser' A440, matt finish, black with ivory rings and a metal key.
No longer made.
plastic
Aulos AF3 'Stanesby' A415, matt ivory/white with metal rings and a metal key.
Now supplied in a wallet.
plastic

AURA

The Dutch factory which produces Aura recorders also produces the Coolsma and Zamra models. Dolmetsch Academy and Conservatoire models are also made there.

The low priced descant models listed below are a small part of the range. Because of serious quality contol issues I have discontinued the all plastic (Far Eastern) descant which I previously sold under the Roessler brand name. (In some regions it is branded "Angel".) It was a nice recorder of traditional Renaissance shape but good baroque performance... an economic and attractive alternative to the ubiquitous brown and ivory plastic. The plastic headed model is also now discontinued. It is slightly longer and the wooden body has the same hole spacing as the Zamra descant. This version seems to me to have a more lively and vibrant feel. There will be no more of either model. The Korean made heads became unplayable.

The Conservatorium models (obtainable to order) are of high quality and full baroque styling.

Aura

Aura BK 3B  Smiley Icon - Recommended Model - Click for Details Eye Icon - Link to Picture descant Speaker Icon - Link to Sound. plastic
Aura Smiley Icon - Recommended Model - Click for Details BKS 4B Eye Icon - Link to Picture descant plastic head
maple body
Aura Smiley Icon - Recommended Model - Click for Details BS 3B Eye Icon - Link to Picture descant. Unvarnished, oil finish.
'O-ring' joint. Plastic case. 'School'. Speaker Icon - Link to Sound.
pearwood
Aura Smiley Icon - Recommended Model - Click for Details BS 1 Eye Icon - Link to Picture descant. Varnished, with cork joint and
zippered fabric case with handle. 'Studie'.
pearwood

Aura/Coolsma - Accessories

Aura   Eye Icon - Link to Picture Thumb rest, various woods. A / T
 

CARMENA

Carmena NLA Eye Icon - Link to Picture Two part. Descant
 

GARY COOK

(Malvern Recorders) I am no longer an agent for these individually hand crafted instruments. Gary has moved move to the USA and I have lost contact with him. I believe that he has stopped making recorders.

I no longer hold any of his instruments. Click here for representative pictures.

 

COOLSMA

The tone of these is very bright and clear, and the top notes easy. The design and turning is very crisp, like the sound. These recorders score very well when checked against a tuning meter.

Coolsma 'Solo'

Coolsma CSP descant palisander
Coolsma CSG descant grenadilla
 
Coolsma CAP treble palisander
Coolsma CAG treble grenadilla
 
Coolsma CST Eye Icon - Link to Picture "Terton", A=415, descant, 2 piece. palisander
 
Coolsma CBE "Bressan" A=415 treble boxwood
 

TIM CRANMORE

I no longer stock these.
They can be very good. You should deal with him direct.

 

DOLMETSCH

Early in 2010 this most famous maker of recorders and other instruments found itself unable to continue trading. It is a matter of great sadness and loss to recorder players, in England, and around the world. Arrangements were made for the continued servicing of Dolmetsch hand made recorders at Haslemere.

I decided to restock with 'school' quality descants branded Aura rather than continue with virtually the same instruments branded 'Dolmetsch'.

Dolmetsch name lived on for a while and could be found on a range of very good factory made recorders from Holland. These were of good wood, design, finish and performance, and are voiced to suit the English taste.

The "Academy" range has relatively plain turning and the descants were in two parts. The boxwood and real Brazilian rosewood trebles were particularly nice. The "Conservatoire" range was of standard baroque shape with thumb-hole bush, sweet toned, and with easy top notes.

Dolmetsch 'Nova' Plastic Models.

Eye Icon - Link to Picture

A consort of brown-black and cream imported recorders with attractive features. They are light in weight, need only a relatively small finger spread, have easy top notes and well matched tone. Nice cases and the usual accessories are provided at very affordable prices. The tenor and bass are particularly good.

Please follow this link for my notes on the bag of small parts supplied with the tenors and basses.

Because of quality issues there will be no more of these. They are really gone!
(An internet search may produce them under a different 'house' brand name. Be warned, the big ones are good, but recently made examples are likely to have faults that affect their playability).

Dolmetsch DN2110 Eye Icon - Link to Picture sopranino (three piece). plastic
Dolmetsch Smiley Icon - Recommended Model - Click for Details DS2120 Eye Icon - Link to Picture descant (three piece).Speaker Icon - Link to Sound. plastic
Dolmetsch DA2130 Eye Icon - Link to Picture treble. plastic
Dolmetsch Smiley Icon - Recommended Model - Click for Details DT2140
(N301)
Eye Icon - Link to Picture tenor, two keys C/C#, thumb rest and strap. plastic
Dolmetsch Smiley Icon - Recommended Model - Click for Details DT2140N
(N301K)
Eye Icon - Link to Picture knick tenor, two keys C/C#, thumb rest and strap. plastic
Dolmetsch Smiley Icon - Recommended Model - Click for Details DB2150 Eye Icon - Link to Picture knick bass, four keys F/F#, thumb rest and strap. plastic
 

Old Dolmetsch (and EMI branded) plastic recorders.

For information on old model Dolmetsch plastic (ABS) recorders please click here.

I have spare C and C# key parts for the old ABS plastic tenors. Check this link.
 
Please contact john@saundersrecorders.com letting me know what you need.
Do check this link first.

Dolmetsch 'Academy' Model
Smiley Icon - Recommended Model - Click for Details

Dolmetsch 6120 Smiley Icon - Recommended Model - Click for Details descant, 2 part pearwood
Dolmetsch 6122 Eye Icon - Link to Picture descant, 2 part boxwood
Dolmetsch 6124 Eye Icon - Link to Picture descant, 2 part rosewood (palisander)
 
Dolmetsch 6130 treble pearwood

Dolmetsch 'Conservatoire' Model

Dolmetsch 8120 descant pearwood
Dolmetsch 8122 Eye Icon - Link to Picture descant boxwood
 
Dolmetsch 8126 Eye Icon - Link to Picture descant grenadilla
 
Dolmetsch DA8130 Eye Icon - Link to Picture treble pearwood
Dolmetsch DA8132 Eye Icon - Link to Picture trebleSpeaker Icon - Link to Sound. boxwood
Dolmetsch DA8136 Eye Icon - Link to Picture treble grenadilla
 
 

EMI

'EMI' branded recorders are no longer available. They were the same as the black ABS Dolmetsch models. The tenors have the same keys as Dolmetsch and I do have spares available. Please see the note and link just above.

 

HEINRICH

Heinrich recorders were made in the former East Germany but production ceased not long after re-unification.. There were many different models and some were good. There were many different bass designs. These instruments are long lived and generally serviceable. Avoid all German fingered models. The cartons often had the salesman's 'puff' of 'The World's Best Recorder' on the label. Do not fall for it!

Towards the end of the factory's life the instruments were branded 'Adler Heinrich' and there was also some production for a well known far eastern company.

 

HOPF

'Hopf' branded recorders are no longer available. The renaissance models are available from Kobliczek. Secondhand 'Meister' trebles are well worth considering, they have an unusally small stretch for the right hand. See Kobliczek for the metal recorders.

 

KENT

The distributor for this range of very inexpensive plastic instruments from Korea has ceased trading.

I had serious reservations about the musical quality of the small sizes in brown and cream plastic, particularly the cheapest models, which mimicked Aulos. However, the brown/white tenor and bass played well and were excellent value. These two sizes became available under the Dolmetsch "Nova" name.

Surprisingly, a translucent blue descant for £4.99 was very good. It is easy to play and has good tone and intonation. Unfortunately, they are no longer available but I have left this entry just to demonstrate that coloured and 'cheap' does not always equate to 'rubbish'. You may be able to find it on-line with a different name.

Kent KCR-BL Eye Icon - Link to Picture descant Speaker Icon - Link to Sound. transparent blue plastic
 

KOBLICZEK

Peter Kobliczek Mark
 Koblicek Maker's Mark.

The recorders are good and come in many pitches and designs. The best known range are wide bore and uniquely for this type play the full two octave range. Two shapes are available, "Renaissance" and "Praetorius". The "Praetorius" are the more ornate and more popular. The bass now has an authentic style key for hole IV. Zapatero boxwood is also available.

Two shapes of baroque recorder are produced, 'Studium' and 'Meister'. The 'Studium' is smoothly curved in a plain but slightly modernistic style, while the 'Meister' is ornate, with spherical bulges, based on an un-named French recorder. The olive wood 'Studium' sopranino is particularly good. The 'Studium' and 'Meister@ maple descants are sweet and have very easy top notes. They are pitched a little higher than most wooden descants. This makes them an attractive proposition for use in an ensemble dominated by plastic recorders (especially those from Yamaha).

There have been also brilliant recorders for buskers and folk groups. The 'Silberton' also sold as 'Gruber System' is of all heavily silver plated brass, descant, and sopranino, while the treble has a wooden body and keys for F/F#. These instruments have a wide parallel bore and something of the sound of a flute. The unusual moveable windway enables one to vary the voicing and produce husky "ethnic" effects, which "mic up" well. The source these days is probably through the internet. Key your requirements into a search engine and see what you can find. The 'Concerto' had a wide bore and thin wall giving it a robust but not coarse tone well liked by folk musicians.

Kobliczek 'Studium'

Kobliczek KOB148 Eye Icon - Link to Picture sopranino (in bag) (two piece) olive wood
 
Kobliczek KOB152 Eye Icon - Link to Picture descant (in bag) (two piece) maple
 

Kobliczek 'Meister'

Kobliczek KOB554 Eye Icon - Link to Picture descant (three piece) palisander
Kobliczek
 

Kobliczek 'Renaissance'

The very plain, straight ones, prices as "Praetorius" models.
 

Kobliczek 'Praetorius'

Eye Icon - Link to Picture
Kobliczek KOB752 Eye Icon - Link to Picture garklein Speaker Icon - Link to Sound.
Link to PDF fingering Chart.
maple
 
Kobliczek KOB754 Eye Icon - Link to Picture sopranino, "diskant"
Link to PDF fingering Chart
maple
 
Kobliczek KOB756 Eye Icon - Link to Picture descant, "sopran", dark stained maple
 
Kobliczek KOB762 treble in F, dark stained. maple

Kobliczek 'Concerto'

No longer available.
 

Silberton

Cylindrical Metal Recorders, occasionally available second-hand.
Eye Icon - Link to Picture
Please check my used list.

 

KUNG

Kung recorders are so well known to regular players that they need little introduction. It will serve well to quote from their catalogue:-

"All our instruments are finished by hand and played to check sound and tuning.

"Our instruments are fashioned from one piece of wood, thus ensuring a uniform structure and grain; they are never assembled from various pieces, except the instruments in grenadilla and sub-bass recorders."

'Studio'. This is a very attractive style, derived from the usual shape of a baroque instrument, but simplified and refined. The tone production favours the low and middle range though the highest notes are not difficult. The tone is full, and needs a good stream of air. They are not for soloists, but excellent for group players as the sound blends so well. The keyless tenor is a delight and fits the hand easily.

'Superio'. An historical range, with curved windway, naturally finished. These models have a refined, rich tone and attractive baroque styling to the instrument and keys. The extra expense is amply justified by the very high quality which is evident in their materials and performance.

'Classica'. Franz Kung's original design was available in all sizes. Sadly, it has been phased out. Tastes change.

The sopraninos of this range were very popular, easy to play and not too small for an adult's hand. The tenors are well liked too. Although they take quite a lot of air they blend well and are easy to keep up to pitch. The handsome almost 'architectural' sub-bass and great bass support large ensembles the world over and will doubtless continue to do so for generations to come.

The No.3407 grenadilla treble was particularly good, having a very strong and brilliant tone. Its more open voicing made it more suitable for brilliant modern works and avant garde techniques.

Kung documentation is more comprehensive than many and I have copied their instruction sheet to .pdf files. You may click for multilingual instructions or fingering. The instructions are those of Kung. Please do not draw me into a discussion over differences between them and those which appear in my care section. We have both written what we have written.

Kung 'Studio'

Kung KNG1101 Eye Icon - Link to Picture garklein Speaker Icon - Link to Sound. pear wood
 
Kung Smiley Icon - Recommended Model - Click for Details KNG1201 Eye Icon - Link to Picture sopranino, two part pear wood
Kung Smiley Icon - Recommended Model - Click for Details KNG1203 Eye Icon - Link to Picture sopranino, two part cherry wood
 
Kung Smiley Icon - Recommended Model - Click for Details KNG1301 Eye Icon - Link to Picture descant, two part pear wood
Kung Smiley Icon - Recommended Model - Click for Details KNG1311 Eye Icon - Link to Picture descant, two part stained pear wood
Kung Smiley Icon - Recommended Model - Click for Details KNG1303 Eye Icon - Link to Picturedescant, two part cherry wood
Kung Smiley Icon - Recommended Model - Click for Details KNG1901 'Folklora' Bb descant, two part. pear wood
  (Equivalent to A=392.) A rich new sound.
This recorder can be played from clarinet parts.
Click here for notes on transposing instruments.
 
Kung Smiley Icon - Recommended Model - Click for Details KNG1401 Eye Icon - Link to Picture treble pear wood
Kung Smiley Icon - Recommended Model - Click for Details KNG1411 Eye Icon - Link to Picture treble stained pear wood
Kung Smiley Icon - Recommended Model - Click for Details KNG1403 Eye Icon - Link to Picture treble cherry wood
 
Kung Smiley Icon - Recommended Model - Click for Details KNG1501 Eye Icon - Link to Picture tenor, keyless pear wood
Kung Smiley Icon - Recommended Model - Click for Details KNG1503 Eye Icon - Link to Picture tenor, keyless Speaker Icon - Link to Sound. cherry wood
Kung Smiley Icon - Recommended Model - Click for Details KNG1581 Eye Icon - Link to Picture knick tenor pearwood, keyless

Kung 'Superio'

Kung KNG2207 sopranino, two part. grenadilla
 
Kung KNG2301 Eye Icon - Link to Picture descant, two part pear wood
Kung KNG2304 Eye Icon - Link to Picture descant, two part Speaker Icon - Link to Sound. plum wood
Kung KNG2306 Eye Icon - Link to Picture descant, two part palisander
 
Kung KNG2401 treble pearwood
Kung KNG2404 treble plum wood
Kung KNG2406 treble palisander
 
Kung KNG2603 Eye Icon - Link to Picture knick bass, F/F# cherry
Kung KNG2722 knick great bass, C/C# maple, stained
Kung KNG9722 End pin (support)

Kung 'Classica'

See the note above.

Kung KNG3108 Eye Icon - Link to Picture garklein Speaker Icon - Link to Sound. rosewood (tulip)
 
Kung KNG3208 Eye Icon - Link to Picture sopranino, two part. rosewood (tulip)
 
Kung The mouth pipes for early 'Classica' basses and great basses
have an unusual feature that can give trouble.
Click here for my pdf help page on the subject.
 

MOECK

Moeck recorders are, like any other, made to be played, but the Moeck recorder is at its best when played to be heard. They are not for the timid.

Moeck keywork has been revised. It is a very great improvement. Recorders have always tended to suffer from unsatisfactory keys but the new Moeck keywork is very different from previous designs. At last, lessons learned a hundred years ago by clarinet and other woodwind instrument makers have been applied to the recorder, with excellent results.

For the beginner Moeck produce the wooden 'School' model and the 'Flauto I', which looks like wood, but is in fact, plastic. The 'Flauto I' has an interesting tone which is vibrant and husky. The sort of sound you might expect from a wooden instrument if you didn't know better. They are very popular with folk musicians. There is also the 'Flauto I Plus' with a plastic head and wooden body. This has a sweeter sound.

The 'Flauto Rondo" ensemble recorders has been developed from the original 'Tuju' model. This is a good general purpose model, ideal as a first wooden recorder. Their ancestry goes back through a bell-less 'Flauto Leggero' model. These recorders are vibrant, slim bodied and light in weight. Their finish is usually natural, clear varnished, but they can come with a mid brown translucent varnish. Small 'Rondo' recorders are supplied in black lightweight fabric wallets.

For the advanced player there is the 'Rottenburgh' range designed by Friedrich von Huene, who founded a notable workshop in America, and has trained many of the new makers of fine recorders. Various woods are used, each having its own particular sound and feel, palisander (rosewood) and black, ebony/grenadilla are the most popular. (Only the terminology has changed, the palisander is red/brown and the same timber as has been used for the past fifteen years or so. It is finished with a red/brown translucent varnish. Grenadilla has replaced the ebony models, which have not been varnished for some time.) The maple is usually natural but may be dark (as above). The pearwood has a clear, or alternatively, a dark translucent varnish.

The trebles modeled on originals by Thomas Stanesby are beautiful and likely to find favour with players who require an mature instrument (especially at A=415), for solo and trio sonatas and similar mixed ensemble baroque music. (Colour leaflet available.)

Besides the baroque recorders there are the renaissance models, wide bore and with a loud and pungent tone, very suitable for dance music. Their compass is limited to a twelfth. There are also 'Kynseker style descants and trebles in plumwood. Their tone is beautifully even and sweet, with just a touch of bite and reediness.

All Moeck recorders come in nice cases. The hard cases that replaced some of the cloth or leather wallets supplied with smaller Rottenburgh models have been discontinued. Eye Icon - Link to Picture Smaller Rottenburgh models are now supplied in a zip fastened case. Eye Icon - Link to Picture Current production now has gold plated keys rather than the previously unplated nickle silver.

Moeck 'Flauto I' and 'Flauto I Plus'

Moeck Smiley Icon - Recommended Model - Click for Details MOE1021 Eye Icon - Link to Picture descant 2 part plastic, light, (dark nla)
Moeck Smiley Icon - Recommended Model - Click for Details MOE1023 Eye Icon - Link to Picture descant, 2 part wood body, plastic head

Moeck 'School'

Moeck MOE1210 Eye Icon - Link to Picture descant 2 part maple
Moeck Smiley Icon - Recommended Model - Click for Details MOE1212 Eye Icon - Link to Picture descant, 2 part Speaker Icon - Link to Sound. pearwood
Moeck Smiley Icon - Recommended Model - Click for Details MOE1213 Eye Icon - Link to Picture descant, 2 part Speaker Icon - Link to Sound. pearwood, dark finish

Moeck 'Flauto Leggero'

Moeck NLA Eye Icon - Link to Picture sopranino (double holes) 2 part. maple

Moeck 'Flauto Rondo'

Moeck Smiley Icon - Recommended Model - Click for Details MOE2100 Eye Icon - Link to Picture sopranino (double holes) 2 part. maple
 
Moeck Smiley Icon - Recommended Model - Click for Details MOE2200 Eye Icon - Link to Picture descant, 2 part. Speaker Icon - Link to Sound. maple
Moeck Smiley Icon - Recommended Model - Click for Details MOE2201 Eye Icon - Link to Picture descant, 2 part. Speaker Icon - Link to Sound. maple (stained)
Moeck Smiley Icon - Recommended Model - Click for Details MOE2300 Eye Icon - Link to Picture treble, new shape. Speaker Icon - Link to Sound. maple
Moeck Smiley Icon - Recommended Model - Click for Details MOE2301 Eye Icon - Link to Picture treble, new shape. Speaker Icon - Link to Sound. maple (stained)
Moeck Smiley Icon - Recommended Model - Click for Details MOE2302 Eye Icon - Link to Picture treble, new shape. pearwood
 
Moeck MOE2400 maple, keyless. tenor
Moeck MOE2420 Eye Icon - Link to Picture tenor two keys (C/C# foot) maple
Moeck MOE2440 tenor two keys (C/C# foot) knick maple
 
Moeck MOE2520 bass, F/F# foot maple
Moeck MOE2540 bass, knick style, as above. maple
 
Moeck MOE2620 Gt. bass in C (D#, C/C# foot) sycamore
Moeck

Moeck 'Rottenburgh'

Eye Icon - Link to Picture
Moeck MOE4100 sopranino, 2 part maple
Moeck MOE4104 sopranino, 2 part boxwood
Moeck MOE4105 sopranino, 2 part palisander (rosewood)
Moeck MOE4107 sopranino, 2 part ebony
 
Moeck MOE4290 Eye Icon - Link to Picture descant, 2 part maple
Moeck MOE4200 descant, 3 part
Special order item.
maple
Moeck MOE4202 Eye Icon - Link to Picturedescant (natural) Speaker Icon - Link to Sound. pearwood
Moeck MOE4203 Eye Icon - Link to Picture descant (dark finish) pearwood
Moeck MOE4204 Eye Icon - Link to Picture descant castello-boxwood
Moeck MOE4205 Eye Icon - Link to Picture descantSpeaker Icon - Link to Sound. palisander (rosewood)
Moeck MOE4207 Eye Icon - Link to Picture descant ebony/grenadilla
Moeck MOE4208 Eye Icon - Link to Picture descantSpeaker Icon - Link to Sound. rosewood (tulip wood)
 
Moeck MOE4300 treble maple
Moeck MOE4302 Eye Icon - Link to Picture treblepearwood (natural)
Moeck MOE4303 treble
pearwood (dark finish)
Moeck MOE4304 Eye Icon - Link to Picture trebleSpeaker Icon - Link to Sound. Castello-boxwood
Moeck MOE4305 Eye Icon - Link to Picture trebleSpeaker Icon - Link to Sound. palisander (rosewood)
Moeck MOE4307 Eye Icon - Link to Picture treble ebony/grenadilla
Moeck MOE4306 treble olive
Moeck MOE4308 Eye Icon - Link to Picture trebleSpeaker Icon - Link to Sound. rosewood (tulip wood)
 
Moeck MOE4400 tenor, keyless maple
Moeck MOE4420 Eye Icon - Link to Picture tenor, two keys (new style keys) maple
Moeck MOE4404 tenor, keyless boxwood
Moeck MOE4424 tenor, two keys boxwood
Moeck MOE4405 tenor, keyless palisander (rosewood)
Moeck MOE4425 Eye Icon - Link to Picture tenor, two keys palisander (rosewood)
Moeck MOE4407 tenor, keyless ebony
Moeck MOE4427 tenor, two keys ebony
 
Moeck MOE4520 bass maple
 

Moeck 'Renaissance'

This range has been replaced by the 'Renaissance Consort' at about twice former the price. The first batch featured original fingering and mean tone temperament, which is still available, but there are now other options.

 

Moeck 'Kynseker'

Moeck MOE8250 Eye Icon - Link to Picture descant, 2 part plumwood
 
Moeck MOE8350 treble, 2 part plumwood
 

Moeck 'Stanesby'

Moeck MOE5323 treble, plain, A=440 Indian boxwood
Moeck MOE5326 treble, A=415 Indian boxwood, patina
 

MOLLENHAUER

Mollenhauer produce a very wide range of recorders, some innovative. The quality of their recorders following the influence of Fred Morgan.

For the beginner the 'Swing' and 'Prima' model descants are a good choice. They are clear toned and easy to play, with a delicately shaped beak. The new black model Swing descant is set to be the standard colour way. The 'Student' descant is very similar to the old 'Chorus' model, but slightly more plain in styling. The sound is well rounded. The 'Canta' models are beautifully styled and have a clear, brighter tone than the traditional Mollenhauer production. The treble is a real winner!

The 'Denner' range is of traditional baroque design and tone, similar to Moeck's 'Rottenburg' range. The new style descants are very elegant in tone and appearance. The voicing of the trebles has been revised so that they are more sweet and even toned, with very good top notes. The tenors have a impressive rich full tone.

The 'Kynseker' models retain a quirk of the original fingering, (F# on the C and B on the F instruments need the little finger in both registers). This is no great problem and they play well, over the two octaves. (There was some production of this model with standard fingering.)

The 'Dream' models inspired by Adriana Breukink are unlike any other recorder. They have a renaissance profile and come in a natural wood finish as well as dull red and dusky blue. (I have changed my original description so as to reflect the colour of the instruments supplied rather than those illustrated in the brochure.) They have now been joined by all plastic and plastic headed soprano models. (See below.) The bore is unusual and gives a robust sound similar to a renaissance instrument, but there is no restriction of compass. This is a fun recorder, great for children and theatrical performance. Both double hole and single hole versions are available. (I have decided not to stock the coloured single hole versions, but a special orders are not a problem.) These sound more like renaissance models, but they have the standard full range. These recorders are generally well liked by folk musicians.

Following the untimely death of the Australian maker Fred Morgan there was an increasing degree of collaboration between the two workshops. The new shape Denner range was the first in which this was really evident but there was Morgan influence on the earlier Denner models before the collaboration was made public at the 2002 Frankfurt Musik Messe. In 2012 the Denner treble design was revised and the 'New Model' appeared. The difference resulting from the slightly increased length and bore diameter is not great but the sound is slightly warmer, with more body.

Most Mollenhauer recorders are supplied in unusual and practical zippered soft cases of padded fabric, or leather. The largest sizes (and some smaller ones) are supplied in deluxe hard cases.

Mollenhauer 'Adri's Dream Recorder'

Smiley Icon - Recommended Model - Click for Details

The tone of these recorders gets progressively more individual as the instrument acquires wooden parts. The all plastic version does not stand out unduly compared to the usual run of better plastic instruments. The plastic heads are thinned at the windway and encourage a good lip position. Wooden parts are available to special order so the models with plastic parts may be converted to all wood. (Please enquire for prices.)


Mollenhauer Smiley Icon - Recommended Model - Click for Details MOL0119R Eye Icon - Link to Picture descant, double holes two part. Speaker Icon - Link to Sound. All Red Plastic
(Black discontinued.)
Mollenhauer Smiley Icon - Recommended Model - Click for Details MOL1119B Eye Icon - Link to Picture descant, double holes, two part. Blue plastic head
pear wood body
Mollenhauer Smiley Icon - Recommended Model - Click for Details MOL1119R Eye Icon - Link to Picture descant, double holes, two part. Red plastic head
pear wood body
 
Mollenhauer MOL4117 Eye Icon - Link to Picture descant, single holes, two part pear wood
Mollenhauer MOL4117B Eye Icon - Link to Picture descant, single holes, two  part. pear wood (blue)
Mollenhauer MOL4117R Eye Icon - Link to Picture descant, single holes, two part. pear wood (red)
Mollenhauer MOL4119 Eye Icon - Link to Picture descant, double holes, two part. pear wood (natural)
Mollenhauer MOL4119B Eye Icon - Link to Picture descant, double holes, two part. pear wood (blue)
Mollenhauer MOL4119R Eye Icon - Link to Picture descant, double holes, two part. pear wood (red)
 
Mollenhauer MOL4317 Eye Icon - Link to Picture treble, double holes, two part Speaker Icon - Link to Sound. pear wood
 
Mollenhauer MOL4427 tenor, double holes, C/C# double key. pear wood
 
Mollenhauer MOL4527K knick bass, 2 body keys, F/F# keyed foot. pear wood
 

Mollenhauer 'Swing'

Mollenhauer Smiley Icon - Recommended Model - Click for Details MOL0505 Eye Icon - Link to Picture descant, three part. Speaker Icon - Link to Sound. plastic,
black/beige beak
Mollenhauer MOL0605 descant, three part. plastic
transparent, clear
Mollenhauer MOL0705 descant, three part. plastic
all beige

Mollenhauer 'Prima'

Mollenhauer MOL1054 Eye Icon - Link to Picture descant, two part. dark blue plastic head
wood body
Mollenhauer MOL1094 Eye Icon - Link to Picture descant, two part. beige plastic head
wood body
 
Mollenhauer Smiley Icon - Recommended Model - Click for Details MOL1295 treble beige plastic head
wood body

Mollenhauer 'Student'

Mollenhauer Smiley Icon - Recommended Model - Click for Details MOL1042 Eye Icon - Link to Picture descant, two part.Speaker Icon - Link to Sound. pearwood

Mollenhauer 'Canta'

Mollenhauer Smiley Icon - Recommended Model - Click for Details MOL2106 Eye Icon - Link to Picture descant, two part. Speaker Icon - Link to Sound. pearwood
 
Mollenhauer Smiley Icon - Recommended Model - Click for Details MOL2206 Eye Icon - Link to Picture treble pearwood
Mollenhauer Smiley Icon - Recommended Model - Click for Details ? MOL2226 Eye Icon - Link to Picture treble, with low F key. pearwood
Mollenhauer MOL2246 treble, with low F/F# keys. pearwood
 
Mollenhauer Smiley Icon - Recommended Model - Click for Details MOL2406 Eye Icon - Link to Picture tenor, keyless. pearwood
Mollenhauer Smiley Icon - Recommended Model - Click for Details MOL2446 Eye Icon - Link to Picture tenor, keys for C/C# pearwood
Mollenhauer MOL2446C 'comfort' tenor, two body keys
and keys for C/C#
pearwood
Mollenhauer MOL2406K tenor, keyless,
knick style, in hard case.
pearwood
Mollenhauer MOL2446K tenor, keys for C/C#
knick style, in hard case.
pearwood
 
Mollenhauer Smiley Icon - Recommended Model - Click for Details MOL2546K Eye Icon - Link to Picture bass, knick style. pear wood
Mollenhauer Smiley Icon - Recommended Model - Click for Details MOL2646K Eye Icon - Link to Picture Great Bass in C, knick style.
I have provided some help notes here...
2646_Assembly.pdf.
stained pearwood
 

Mollenhauer 'Chorus'

This range is no longer in production.
It has been replaced by the 'Canta' series.

Mollenhauer 'Denner'

A typical Mollenhauer case is illustrated here... Eye Icon - Link to Picture

Mollenhauer MOL5022 sopranino, 2 part boxwood
 
Mollenhauer MOL5107 Eye Icon - Link to Picture descant Speaker Icon - Link to Sound. pearwood
Mollenhauer MOL5120 Eye Icon - Link to Picture descant palisander (rosewood)
Mollenhauer MOL5122 descant boxwood
Mollenhauer MOL5124 descant grenadilla
Mollenhauer MOL5125 Eye Icon - Link to Picture descant rosewood (tulip wood)
Mollenhauer MOL5206 Eye Icon - Link to Picture treble Speaker Icon - Link to Sound. pearwood
Mollenhauer MOL5220 Eye Icon - Link to Picture treble (Old recording.) Speaker Icon - Link to Sound.
Speaker Icon - Link to Sound. (New recording.)
palisander (rosewood)
Mollenhauer MOL5222 Eye Icon - Link to Picture treble Speaker Icon - Link to Sound. Castello boxwood
Mollenhauer MOL6100ac Eye Icon - Link to Picture treble. 'Denner' Cherry Wood
Mollenhauer MOL5223 treble olive wood
Mollenhauer MOL5224 Eye Icon - Link to Picture treble grenadilla
Mollenhauer MOL5225 treble rosewood (tulip wood)
Mollenhauer MOL5222T treble (A=415) zapatero boxwood
spacer
spacer
Mollenhauer 'Denner Line'
Mollenhauer MOLDL-5222 treble A=415 castello boxwood
spacer
spacer
 
Mollenhauer MOL5406 Eye Icon - Link to Picture tenor, double holes, keyless pear wood
Mollenhauer MOL5416 tenor, two keys C/C# pearwood
Mollenhauer MOL5422 tenor, double holes keyless boxwood
Mollenhauer MOL5432 tenor, two keys C/C# boxwood
Mollenhauer MOL5430 Eye Icon - Link to Picture tenor two keys C/C# palisander
 
Mollenhauer MOL5506 bass, two body keys, F/F# keys. pearwood
 

Mollenhauer 'Kynseker'

Mollenhauer MOL4001 garklein maple
 
Mollenhauer MOL4107 descant, 2 part maple
Mollenhauer MOL4108 Eye Icon - Link to Picture descant, 2 part plum wood
 
Mollenhauer MOL4207 treble in G, 2 part maple
Mollenhauer MOL4208 treble in G, 2 part plum wood
Mollenhauer MOL4217 treble in F, 2 part maple
Mollenhauer MOL4218 treble in F, 2 part plum wood
 
Mollenhauer MOL4407 tenor, 2 part maple
Mollenhauer MOL4408 plum wood, 2 part tenor
 
Mollenhauer MOL4507 bass maple
 

The Recorder - Based on Historical Models
Fred Morgan - Writings and Memoirs

Mollenhauer (MOL6406) English version. Eye Icon - Link to Picture Book
 
 

PAETZOLD

The first square section great bass and sub-bass recorders came from the workshop of Herbert Paetzold. These have a strange appearance (I know one named Frankenstein!) but they work well. The air column is folded in a way that organists will recognise. This results in a relatively compact instrument, without detriment to the tone.

 

ROESSLER

Update, September 2005. Please see the article in Windkanal 2/2005. The firm has been sold to Mollenhauer who will finish some part made instruments and offer maintenance support. There is a possibility that the name will reappear.

'School'. These were basic, but generally well made with plain styling from pearwood. The instruments were also sold in the UK under the "Chester" name.

'Dulcia'. These were maple and very smooth in shape, similar the the old Moeck 'Tuju' model but with even fewer turned features. Brass rings at the sockets. Rather nice but long discontinued. Eye Icon - Link to Picture

'Meister'. This is Roessler's own design of high quality general purpose instrument. They came in many woods. Their sound is darker than most recorders, with a slightly nasal quality, much more direct and less winsome than the tone of a Moeck. The appearance is smoothly modernised baroque and the hardwood instruments are only polished, not varnished. All the basses have a double key for F/F#. The bass has a shorter head than any other and plays like a big treble, Telemann sonatas are quite playable, especially the one in f-minor (originally suggested for bassoon) it was deservedly very popular.

'Oberlender'. The historic model from Roessler. The sound is dark and even, right up to the highest notes. These are lovely, distinctive instruments.

 

SCHOTT & Co.

This is a name that has disappeared from the instrument side of the recorder world. In the past they have supplied instruments with the Schott brand in various qualities and distributed Zen-On and Mollenhauer models.

In the UK Schott were at the forefront of the recorder revival in the 1940's. You will find the dreadful kitemarked beech descants in junk shops and charity (thrift) shops everywhere. There are at least two bakelite descant models, not very good, but collectable out of historical interest in the material. I have acquired some of these instruments, click here to see them.

Many of the DDR produced Schott 'Concert' and 'Prelude' models are still about. The pearwood 'Concert' range was fairly good in its day but only the tenors and basses are worth bothering with now. Eye Icon - Link to Picture

Some tenors have a metalised plastic key. These break and are not repairable or economically replaceable. The maple Prelude range, with metal keys, was rather better.

 

WILLMAN

John Willman made many types of early musical instruments. For a long time he was based in Bath. There will be no more but you can view one of his Bressan style boxwood trebles here.

 

YAMAHA

Yamaha produce an amazing range of recorders. They cover everything from cheap plastic school recorders to a very expensive authentic A=415Hz Denner copy. It is my feeling that the smaller plastic instruments are rather sharp, and should be pulled out, as I like to feel a bit more resistance to my breath. The plastic tenor and bass put many older wooden instruments to shame but the sopraninos are relatively poor, those from Aulos being very much better.

Yamaha models are widely copied, not always with good results. Quality control is very important. Even Yamaha can produce instruments that do not play well. If you have a problem you may find an answer on this page.

Yamaha 20 Translucent plastic. Shocking pink, green or blue! Better than the YRS24.

Yamaha 24, 28, cheap, but well produced, 'chorus' type tone, not for strong blowers. Here is a picture of the unusual white treble

Yamaha 300 Series, once advertised as being 'Rottenburgh', (I can't think why, can you?). Baroque styled instruments. The simulated wood versions, are more expensive, but worth the extra because of the feel. I prefer the very convincing rosewood version, the ebony has prominent light streaks. The new wood finish trebles are different from the immediately previous production and much better. I should point out that the beauty is but skin deep and wears away with diligent practice. (Perhaps this could start a fashion among students, a bit like frayed jeans!). The tenor now has keys for low C/C#. The descants and trebles need pulling out. The latest models proudly display the famous Yamaha tuning fork trademark. The new cases are different, made of fabric rather than vinyl. The tenor and bass are very good.

Yamaha 43, maple instruments, varnish finished. These instruments are no longer produced.

Yamaha 61, 62, 64, Middle priced instruments of considerable appeal. They have very even tone, perhaps a bit too even, and are nice recorders which work very well. The trebles are a bit weak at the bottom for some players, who are troubled by "burbles", but this does not happen with the descants. The maple large recorders are a separate stream and very good. They are light in weight and have a beautiful, focused 'flutey' tone. The Gt.Bass is superb, of handsome appearance, with fully chromatic keys and very agile and secure tone production. The profile is like the Bressan bass at Chester, with the globular bell and a choice of hollow pegs for playing while sitting or standing.

Yamaha 82, 83. These are a different design again. Yamaha like to change the design with the material. These are real recorders in the best authentic style. They are not puffed up modern instruments but feel right for baroque music. To me, these have the nearest feel in a modern pitch instrument to that of a baroque pitch instrument. I like it very much.

If ordering by reference number note that the third letter is critical, even Yamaha themselves get confused by this! The 'B' at the very end indicates 'Baroque' as opposed to 'German' fingering. (See the glossary page.) I will have nothing to do with 'German' fingered instruments.

Yamaha YRF 21 If you fancy trying the sideways sort of flute, the Yamaha fife is just the thing. It plays very like a descant recorder, and the fingering is, where different, like the modern Boehm flute. Of course there are a few snags, but at the price one can't complain. It is very playable and musical when you know how, and a good introduction to this sort of instrument.

Yamaha Fife

Yamaha Smiley Icon - Recommended Model - Click for Details YRF21 fife in C (white) Speaker Icon - Link to Sound. plastic
Yamaha "The Fife Book" by Liz Goodwin (2nd. edition)
is a method for this unique instrument.

Click here for an extended comment on this instrument.

This fife is readily available from Yamaha dealers and the book is published by Just Flutes.

I have left the reference and my comments about fife on my site as there is very little information about this product available and it is not well understood. I was pleased and flattered to receive a 'thank you' from Yamaha Canada for providing information that enabled them to answer questions raised by one of their clients.

"The Rough Guide to the Flute & Piccolo" by Hugo Pinksterboer (Penguin)
All you need to know! But unobtainable at the moment. (2008)

Yamaha Hardwood

Yamaha YRA61 Eye Icon - Link to Picture treble boxwood
 

ZAMIR/ARIEL

Plain instruments for the budget conscious. The production of these recorders has ceased. I no longer have any. Just for the record, I have resurrected a picture of two maple descant models here.

 

ZAMRA

Eye Icon - Link to Picture

This budget range comes from from Holland. Maple wood (only) and simple but attractive styling combined with a clear, sweet tone make this a welcome addition to my catalogue. As with all my recorders, they are checked for tone and intonation. At the moment I am adjusting the trebles to bring them up to my standard. The tenors are very popular and good value.

Zamra

Zamra Smiley Icon - Recommended Model - Click for Details VS500B Eye Icon - Link to Picture descant, two part , 'O-ring' joint. Speaker Icon - Link to Sound. maple
Zamra Smiley Icon - Recommended Model - Click for Details VA500B treble Speaker Icon - Link to Sound. maple
Zamra Smiley Icon - Recommended Model - Click for Details VT500B Eye Icon - Link to Picture tenor Speaker Icon - Link to Sound. maple
 

ZEN-ON

Zen-On distribution changed and they became unavailable in the UK.

The high quality plastic recorders have a following in spite of their relatively high price. They are made in Japan and modelled on named originals. Their tone is true and suitable for the serious student. The simulated wood models are good value and convincing. The big wooden instruments are quite light and blend well in an ensemble.

A treble (alto) in plastic at A=415 has now been intoduced.

Zen-On wooden recorders are unusual but of good quality.
I have resurrected a picture of a bass here.

   

© Saunders Recorders - John Everingham